Media Arabic Booster 06/24

As a journalist, I read Arabic newspapers daily, especially the opinion section. Every month, I want to share with you on Arabic for Nerds what I find interesting from a linguistic perspective and which vocabulary might be worth learning. I call it the Media Arabic Booster.

Headlines in Arabic media are generally easy to understand – but there are also some tricky words.

al-Masry al-Youm: Israel on the “List of Shame”

On Saturday, June 8, 2024, the Egyptian newspaper al-Masry al-Youm (المصري اليوم) published the following headline on its frontage:

Al-Masry al-Youm, Headline 08 June 2024
Al-Masry al-Youm, Headline 08 June 2024

What is the reason and background for this article? For the first time, the Secretary-General of the United Nations has placed the Israeli Defense Forces on the so-called “list of shame”. This annual list names armed groups and military forces that recruit children, harm them, commit sexual violence, or attack schools and hospitals. The list is part of a report on “Children and Armed Conflict,” which aims to hold violators accountable and protect the rights of children in war zones. Being on this list means violating international laws for the safety of children in conflict zones.

Let’s see how this renders in Arabic.

إسرائيل على «قائمة العار»

Israel on the «List of Shame»

Let’s focus on the word العار. There are two roots which may produce the same output:

ع-ي-ر ⇔ عارٌ

The I-verb عارَ – يَعيرُ means to stray, to wander; to come and go. The II-verb عَيَّرَ – يُعَيِّرُ عَلَى means to insult; to abuse. From this root, we get the noun عارٌ (a regular noun with regular case endings) which is used in the above headline. عارٌ means shame, disgrace. The plural of عارٌ is أَعْيَارٌ.

ع-ر-ي ⇔ عارٍ

The I-verb يَعْرَى – عَرِيَ عَنْ means to be naked; to be exposed; also: to be free/bare of. The noun عارٍ means naked, nude; also: void (خالٍ). It is an active participle (اِسْمُ الْفاعِلِ). The plural forms are عارُونَ and عُرَاةٌ or feminine عارِياتٌ and عُرَاةٌ. For example: flawless (عارٍ مِن كُلِّ عَيْبٍ). Remark: Notice the ending! عارٍ is a so-called noun with a reduced, incomplete ending (اِسْمٌ مَنْقُوصٌ) – if you don’t know it, check out this article.

Vocabulary list

All words marked in color above are explained here.

pl.: قَوائِمُ or قائِماتٌ
list; table. For example: waiting list (قائِمةُ الْاِنْتِظارِ); to put someone on the black list (سَجَّلَ شَخْصًا فِي الْقائِمةِ السَّوْداءِ). Note: The root of this word is ق-و-م. The I-verb قامَ – يَقُومُ has dozens of meanings. One of the most basic is to stand up.
عارٌ عَلَىshame, disgrace (for). Notice: The root is ع-ي-ر.
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner

Translation of an article

Let’s look at parts of a longer newspaper article in Arabic. We will translate each sentence carefully. The highlighted words are in the vocabulary list below.

al-Arabi al-Jadeed: “Did Israel cut off Egypt’s gas supplies to politically blackmail it?”

On June 13, 2024, the following analysis was published in the Qatari-owned London-based newspaper al-Arabi al-Jadeed (العربي الجديد). It deals with the supply of natural gas from Israel to Egypt and whether and how Israel may have used this recently to put pressure on Egypt.

The issue of EXPORTING gas to Israel: Egypt under the regime of Hosni Mubarak (حسني مبارك) agreed to export natural gas to Israel in 2005, based on the 1979 peace accords. Egypt supplied Israel with 40% of its natural gas at lower than market prices, with corruption reducing state revenues. The Egyptian media (when the media was not heavily censored and in sync) accused Mubarak’s sons and corrupt businessmen of taking 2.5 to 5 percent of revenues. After Mubarak’s regime fell in 2011, at least 14 attacks on the pipeline transporting gas to Israel were counted. Egypt ended its gas export contract with Israel in April 2012.1

The issue of IMPORTING gas from Israel: Egypt’s population is growing rapidly and the country lacks sufficient natural resources such as oil and gas, which are essential for power generation. To meet its growing energy needs, Egypt now imports natural gas from Israel’s offshore Tamar gas field in the eastern Mediterranean, which was discovered in 2009. Egypt’s need for natural gas and its role in the Gaza war have put it in an increasingly difficult political situation. Egypt’s already limited gas supply was further reduced in June 2024 by the temporary closure of Israel’s Tamar gas field “for maintenance” as announced.2 Electricity shortages are becoming an increasing problem in Egypt as heat waves increase demand for cooling.

Article Al Arabi Al Jadeed, June 24, 2024
Article Al Arabi Al Jadeed, June 24, 2024

Let’s now take a closer look at a few complete paragraphs.

هل قطعت إسرائيل الغاز عن مصر لابتزازها سياسيًا؟

Did Israel cut off Egypt’s gas supplies to politically blackmail it?

Section 1

ربط خبراء وسياسيون مصريون بين التراجع المصري عن الانضمام إلى جنوب أفريقيا في مقاضاة إسرائيل أمام محكمة العدل الدولية، وبين إقدام الجانب الإسرائيلي باتخاذ إجراء عقابي بتعطيل شحنات غاز كانت مقررة لمصر نهاية شهر مايو/أيار الماضي، ما أدى إلى تفاقم أزمة إمدادات الطاقة التي ضاعفت أزمة انقطاعات التيار الكهربائي. سبب الربط بشكل أساسي هو أنه لم تحدث أية خطوات عملية مصرية على صعيد دعم الدعوى في لاهاي، التي اتُهمت فيها إسرائيل بارتكاب جرائم الإبادة الجماعية في قطاع غزة.

Egyptian experts and politicians have linked Egypt’s backing down on joining South Africa in suing Israel at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to the Israeli side’s decision to take punitive measures by disrupting gas shipments that were due to reach Egypt at the end of May, leading to an escalation of the energy supply crisis that has exacerbated power outages. The main reason for establishing this link is that Egypt has not taken any practical steps to support the case in The Hague, in which Israel is accused of committing genocide in the Gaza Strip.

Section 2

فضلًا عن ذلك، وصلت توجيهات إلى وسائل الإعلام المملوكة للشركة المتحدة المحسوبة على جهاز المخابرات في مصر بعدم ذكر التحرك المفترض الذي سبق أن أعلنت عنه القاهرة، في 12 مايو/أيار الماضي، بعزمها الانضمام لدعم الدعوى المقدمة من جنوب أفريقيا، مع تركيز التعليمات على أن التحرك المصري منصب بالأساس على الجوانب الإنسانية مع الحفاظ على دور الوسيط للقاهرة.

Additionally, instructions were sent to the media outlets owned by United Media Services, which is affiliated with Egypt’s intelligence apparatus, to not mention the supposed move that was previously announced by Cairo on May 12 regarding its intention to join the lawsuit filed by South Africa, while insisting that the Egyptian move is primarily focused on the humanitarian aspect and Cairo’s mediating role.

The best way to answer this question is to simply delete all the subordinate information and focus on the main parts. In the end there is only one word left: تَحَرُّك

فضلًا عن ذلك، وصلت توجيهات إلى وسائل الإعلام المملوكة للشركة المتحدة المحسوبة على جهاز المخابرات في مصر بعدم ذكر التحرك المفترض الذي سبق أن أعلنت عنه القاهرة، في 12 مايو/أيار الماضي، بعزمها الانضمام لدعم

Since this infinitive noun is derived from a V-verb form that does not take a direct object (= intransitive), we need the preposition ب to add any kind of object.

Section 3

وأشار مصدر مصري في حديثٍ لـ”العربي الجديد” إلى أن الجانب الإسرائيلي “استند في هذا الإجراء إلى بند في عقود الغاز الموقعة بين مصر وإسرائيل خاص بإمكانية وقف الإمدادات من دون شروط جزائية أو غرامات، حال تعذر الأوضاع الأمنية”. وكشف المصدر أن ما ضاعف تأثير الإجراء الإسرائيلي هو تباطؤ شحنات مواد بترولية كانت مقررة في الوقت ذاته من السعودية، كانت تحصل عليها مصر بأسعار تمييزية وبنظام دفع ميسر.

Speaking to Al-Araby al-Jadeed, an Egyptian source indicated that the Israeli side “based this measure on a clause in the gas contracts signed between Egypt and Israel, which allows for the possibility of stopping supplies without punitive conditions or fines, if the security situation becomes difficult.” According to the source, what deepened the impact of the Israeli measure was the slow progress of other fuel shipments that should have been delivered at the same time from Saudi Arabia, which Egypt was getting at preferential prices and concessional payment terms (~ installments?).

Section 4

نائب مدير مركز الدراسات السياسية والاستراتيجية بالأهرام عمرو هاشم ربيع أعرب عن اعتقاده، في حديثٍ لـ”العربي الجديد”، أن “أزمة خفض إمدادات الغاز الإسرائيلي لمصر سياسية بامتياز، إذ تسعى تل أبيب من وراء ذلك للضغط على مصر لانتزاع تنازلات سياسية، وعقابًا للقاهرة على حزمة من التوجهات المصرية، ومنها رفض احتلال إسرائيل معبر رفح وممر فيلادلفيا ورفض دخول المساعدات الإنسانية إلى الجانب الفلسطيني من معبر رفح، باعتبار أن تل أبيب ليست طرفًا في اتفاقية تشغيل المعبر، ما شكّل إحراجًا شديدًا لتل أبيب أمام المجتمع الدولي”. وقال هاشم ربيع إن إسرائيل “مستاءة للغاية من إدانة مصر المجازر الإسرائيلية في صفوف المدنيين الفلسطينيين، وآخرها مجازر النصيرات، وإعلان مصر انضمامها إلى دعوى جنوب أفريقيا أمام محكمة العدل الدولية.

Speaking to Al-Araby al-Jadeed, Amr Hashem Rabeeh, deputy director of the Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, argued that “the crisis of reducing Israeli gas supplies to Egypt is political par excellence, as Tel Aviv is using that to pressure Egypt into making political concessions, and to punish Cairo for a series of Egyptian inclinations, including the rejection of Israel’s occupation of the Rafah crossing and the Philadelphia Axis and the refusal to deliver humanitarian aid to the Palestinian side through the Rafah crossing, seeing as how (considering that) Tel Aviv is not a party to the agreement to operate the crossing. And this has significantly embarrassed Tel Aviv in front of the international community”. Hashem Rabeeh said that Israel is very upset by Egypt’s condemnation of the Israeli massacres of Palestinian civilians, the most recent of which is the Nuseirat massacre, and Egypt’s announcement to join South Africa’s lawsuit at the International Court of Justice.

Section 5

ووضع ذهاب تل أبيب في ابتزاز مصر إلى أقصى مدى في سياق “محاولة خلق رأي عام شعبي ضد صانع القرار في مصر، وإظهار الحكومة المصرية في وضع العاجز في مواجهة أزمة الكهرباء”،… مشيرًا إلى أن مصر “أمامها بدائل عديدة، ومنها التوجه إلى قطر والجزائر للحصول على احتياجاتها من الغاز، وأن الجزائر تبدو الأكثر مناسبة وذلك لارتباط قطر بعقود وشروط جزائية لتصدير الغاز إلى عدد كبير من دول العالم”.

So, he placed Tel Aviv’s extreme blackmailing of Egypt in the context of “an attempt to create popular anger toward the decision-makers in Egypt, and depict the Egyptian government as being unable to face the electricity crisis.” … “He pointed out that Egypt has “many options, including turning to Qatar and Algeria to obtain its gas needs, although Algeria seems to be the most suitable given that Qatar is bound by contracts and penal conditions to export gas to a large number of countries in the world”.

Section 6

أما أستاذ هندسة الطاقة بجامعة الزقازيق حافظ سلماوي، فرأى أن أسباب خفض إمدادات الغاز الإسرائيلي لمصر الغاز قد تكون لها اعتبارات فنية، وتعود لتطورات الحرب في غزة، والتوترات على الحدود اللبنانية، بشكل يمكن معه توجيه كميات أكثر من الصادرات الإسرائيلية للمجهود الحربي، ولتعويض زيادة الطلب على الغاز في الداخل الإسرائيلي.

On the other hand, Hafiz Salmawy, a professor of energy engineering at Zagazig University, believes that the resons for the reduction of the Israeli gas supplies to Egypt may have technical considerations, linked to the developments in the war in Gaza and the tensions on the Lebanese border, in a way that requires the shifting of the Israeli exports toward the war effort, and the compensation of the increasing demand for gas on the Israeli domestic stage.

All the words in the above article marked in color can be found in this table with explanations.

Section 1

اِبْتِزازٌblackmail, blackmailing; also: extortion; robbery. It is the مَصْدَر of the VIII-verb ابْتَزَّ – يَبْتَزُّ which means to blackmail, also: to rob, to usurp. For example: to take money out of people’s pockets (اِبْتَزَّ أَمْوالَ النّاسِ). Note: The root ب-ز-ز denotes to take away; to snatch. This explains the more general meaning of the VIII-verb, which is to usurp.
تَراجُعٌ عَنْbacking down on (عَنْ); decline, slowdown; regression (in economics). Also: withdrawal, retreat (تَنازَلَ). For example: economic regression (تَراجُعٌ اِقْتِصادِيٌّ). It is the مَصْدَر of the VI-verb تَراجَعَ – يَتَراجَعُ which means to withdraw, to go back; to collapse; to revoke; to decline.
اِنْضِمامٌ إِلَىjoining, entering. It is the مَصْدَر of the VII-verb انْضَمَّ – يَنْضَمُّ which means to join. You often hear this in live interviews when the host begins by saying, “joining us now from xxx is…” (يَنْضَمُّ إِلَيْنا مِنْ).
مُقاضاةٌsuing; also: prosecution; trial. It is the مَصْدَر of the III-verb قاضَى – يُقاضِي which means to summon before a judge, to bring before a court of justice.
مَحْكَمَةُ الْعَدْلِ الدَّوْلِيَّةُthe International Court of Justice
pl.: جَوانِبُ
side; part. For example: on the other hand (وَمِنْ جانِبٍ آخَرَ); humanitarian aspects (جَوانِبُ إِنْسانِيَّةٌ)
إقْدامٌaudacity, boldness, daring; courageous approach to (عَلَى). It is the مَصْدَر of the IV-verb أَقْدَمَ – يُقْدِمُ عَلَى which means to risk/dare; to undertake (courageously); to venture upon. For example: to take a risk (أَقْدِمُ عَلَى مُجازَفَةِ)
عِقابِيٌّpenal, punitive. It is the nisba adjective (نِسْبة) of the noun عِقابٌ which means punishment, sanction.
تَعْطِيلٌstopping; suspension. It is the مَصْدَر of the II-verb عَطَّلَ – يُعَطِّلُ which means to put out of action, to suspend; but also: to break or destroy.
pl.: شِحَنٌ or شِحْناتٌ
freight, cargo; in electricity: charge. For example: battery charge (شَحْنةُ بَطّاريّةٍ). Note: You may also hear that people use a different first vowel, e.g., شَحْنة or even شُحْنة.
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner
مُقَرَّرٌdecided; intended; set. It is the passive participle (اِسْمُ الْمَفْعُولِ) of the II-verb قَرَّرَ – يُقَرِّرُ which means to decide; to determine. For example: It was decided/intended that… (كانَ مِنْ الْمُقَرَّرِ أَنْ)
أَدَّى – يُؤَدِّي إِلَىto lead to. It is a II-verb; the root is: أ-د-ي
تَفاقُمٌdeterioration, worsening. It is the مَصْدَر of the VI-verb تَفاقَمَ – يَتَفاقَمُ which means to escalate; to deteriorate. For example: escalation of the crisis (تَفاقُمُ الْأَزْمةِ); worsening of the situation (تَفاقُم الأَوْضاعِ). With the verb: the crisis is escalating (يَتَفاقَمُ الْأَزْمةُ)
إِمْدادٌ بِsupply; delivery. It is the مَصْدَر of the IV-verb أَمَدَّ – يُمِدُّ بِ which means to provide; to supply with. For example: to provide the journalist with information (أَمُدُّ الصُّحُفِيَّ بِالْمَعْلُوماتِ)
ضاعَفَ – يُضاعِفُto increase; to raise; to double (also in the sense of: to multiply if a number follows). It is a III-verb. For example: to triple (ضاعَفَ ثَلاثَ مَرّاتٍ). The verb can also express an increase in a general sense. For example: to be extra careful (ضاعَفَ الْحِيطةَ)
تَيّارٌstream, current, flow. When talking about the ocean: tide. When talking about politics or society, it means movement or trend. For example: a political movement (تَيّارٌ سِياسِيٌّ)
كَهْرَبائِيٌّelectric(al). For example: electric current (تَيّارٌ كَهْرَبائِيٌّ); mains current (تَيّار الشَبَكةِ الكَهْرَبائيّةِ). Remark: voltage ( ~ tension) is often translated as جُهْدٌ or تَوَتُّرٌ كَهْرَبائِيٌّ.
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner
عَلَى الصَّعيدِon/at the level. For example: at the international level (عَلَى الصَّعيدِ الدُّوَلِيِّ). Very common is the expression on the other hand (عَلَى صَعِيدٍ آخَرَ). The noun صَعِيد has many meanings. In general, it denotes level, area, domain, field. Talking about countries or landscapes, it means highlands, plateau, as in Upper Egypt (صَعِيدُ مِصْرَ or simply الصَّعِيدُ).
pl.: دَعاوٍ or دَعاوَى
lawsuit; court case. Don’t confuse it with دَعْوةٌ (of the same root) which means invitation, call or in religion: supplication/prayer (دُعاء).
لاهايThe Hague. Note: لاهاي is feminine.
اِرْتِكابٌCommitting (a crime); perpetrating. It is the مَصْدَر of the VIII-verb ارْتَكَبَ – يَرْتَكِبُ which means to commit, perpetrate. For example: to commit a crime (اِرْتَكَبَ جَرِيمةً)
إِبادةٌ جَماعِيّةٌgenocide. The noun إِبادةٌ means annihilation, extermination and is the مَصْدَر of the IV-verb أَبادَ – يُبيدُ which means to exterminate; to massacre.
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner

Section 2

فَضْلًا عَنْ ذٰلِكَmoreover, besides, additionally. Note: فَضْلًا عن just means aside from.
تَوْجِيهٌ – تَوْجِيهاتٌinstructions; directives; also: advice; forwarding. It is the مَصْدَر of the II-verb وَجَّهَ – يُوَجِّهُ إِلَى which means to direct; to steer; also: to send.
وَسائِلُ الإِعْلامِmedia; mass media
مَمْلُوكٌ لِowned by (= لِ). For example: state-owned industries (صِناعاتٌ مَمْلُوكَةٌ لِلدَّوْلَةِ)
pl.: أَجْهِزةٌ
device; apparatus
جِهازُ مُخابَراتٍsecret service. Often just with the definite article: الْمُخابَراتُ. For example: CIA – Central Intelligence Agency (وَكالَةُ الْاِسْتِخْباراتِ الْمَرْكَزِيَّةِ); often also just سي آي ايه.
عَدَمٌnon-, un-, in-. Usually, it is put before a noun to express its nonexistence. For example: lack of interest (عَدَمُ الْاِهْتِمامِ).
مُفْتَرَضٌpresumed; supposed; alleged. It is the passive participle (اِسْمُ الْمَفْعُولِ) of the VIII-verb افْتَرَضَ – يَفْتَرِضُ which means to assume. For example: it can be assumed that (مِنْ الْمُفْتَرَضِ أَنْ).
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner
تَحَرُّكٌinitiative; move; action. It is the مَصْدَر of the V-verb تَحَرَّكَ – يَتَحَرَّكُ which means to move; to get moving.
أَعْلَنَ – يُعْلِنُ عَنْto make public; to announce. It is a IV-verb.
عَزْمٌintention; decision. For example: to announce one’s decision (أَعْلَنَ عَزْمَهُ)
مُقَدَّمٌsubmitted; presented. As an adverb, مُقَدَّمًا, it means in advance; previously, beforehand.
تَعْلِيماتٌinstructions. Similar meaning as the word تَوْجِيهٌ. For example: clear instructions (تَعْلِيماتٌ واضِحَةٌ)
مُنْصَبٌّ عَلَىdirected, targeted at. It is the passive participle of the VII-verb انْصَبَّ – يَنْصَبُّ عَلَى which means to be aimed at, to be focused (also: to be poured out). Watch out: Do not mispronounce the word as مَنْصِبٌ means position, job, function or tripod, stand.
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner

Section 3

اسْتَنَدَ – يَسْتَنِدُ إِلَىto support; to lean; to be based on. VIII-verb. For example: to be based on facts (اِسْتَنَدَ إِلَى وَقائِعَ)
pl.: بُنُودٌ
paragraph; item; section
جَزائِيٌّpenal; also: criminal (adjective)
غَرامةٌfine; penalty
حالَas soon as; whenever – used as an adverb.
تَعَذُّرٌimpossibility. It is the مَصْدَر of the V-verb تَعَذَّرَ – يَتَعَذَّرُ which means to be impossible. It is often used to convey the idea of not meeting conditions, more than the literal sense. For example: in case something is not able to be provided (فِي حالِ تَعَذَّرِ تَوْفِيرِ شَيْءٍ).
تَباطُؤٌdelay; slowdown. It is the مَصْدَر of the VI-verb تَباطَأَ – يَتَباطَأُ which means to linger; to be slow. Notice that the third root letter is ء. For example: economic slowdown (تَباطُؤٌ اِقْتِصادِيٌّ)
مُيَسَّرٌfacilitated; simplified; concessional. For example: concessional terms (شُرُوطٌ مُيَسَّرَةٌ); soft loan (قَرْضٌ مُيَسَّرٌ).
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner

Section 4

أَعْرَبَ – يُعْرِبُ عَنْto express; to put into words. It is a IV-verb.
اِعْتِقادٌview, opinion, belief. It is the مَصْدَر of the VIII-verb اعْتَقَدَ – يَعْتَقِدُ which means to believe; to think and is followed by أَنَّ – “to think that…”
بِاِمْتِيازٍpar excellence; with high distinction
اِنْتِزاعٌextracting; removal; withdrawal; also: grabbing; gaining. It is the مَصْدَر of the VIII-verb انْتَزَعَ – يَنْتَزِعُ which means to pull out; to snatch; to gain
تَنازُلٌconcession. For example: to make concessions (قَدِّمْ تَنازُلاتٍ). It is the مَصْدَر of the VI-verb تَنازَلَ – يَتَنازَلُ which means to resign; to give up.
pl.: حُزْماتُ or حُزَمٌ
bunch; bundle
pl.: تَوَجُّهاتٌ
inclination; tendency. It is the مَصْدَر of the V-verb تَوَجَّهَ – يَتَوَجَّهُ إِلَى which means to head; to turn. The first root letter is و.
بِاعْتِبارِ أَنَّwith regard to the fact that; considering that… Also: عَلَى اِعْتِبارِ أَنَّ
إحْراجٌembarrassment. It is the مَصْدَر of the IV-verb أَحْرَجَ – يُحْرِجُ which means to embarrass someone. Watch out: إخْراجٌ with خ means taking out; production.
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner
مُسْتاءٌ مِنْannoyed; offended by something. It is the active (اِسْمُ الْفاعِلِ) OR passive participle (اِسْمُ الْمَفْعُولِ) of the VIII-verb اسْتاءَ – يَسْتاءُ which means to be offended, to be annoyed. The root is س-و-ء.
إِِدانةٌcondemnation. It is the مَصْدَر of the IV-verb أَدانَ – يُدينُ which means to condemn; to convict. When used in the sense of convict, you add the person as a direct object and the reason for the conviction with the preposition بِ.
pl.: مَجازِرُ
massacre; bloodbath. It can also denote slaughterhouse or butcher.
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner

Section 5

مَدًىscope; range; extent. For example: long-range (طَوِيلُ الْمَدَى); as far as the eye can see (عَلَى مَدَى البَصَرِ). It is also part of the name of an independent Egyptian online newspaper: Mada Masr (مدى مصر).
إظْهارٌdisplay. It is the مَصْدَر of the IV-verb أَظْهَرَ – يُظْهِرُ which means to show; to display; to demonstrate.
عاجِزٌincapable; unable; also: disabled.
pl.: بَدائِلُ
alternative; option; substitute. For example: there is no other option (لا بَدِيلَ عَنْ هٰذا)
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner

Section 6

pl.: اِعْتِباراتٌ
consideration; reason. For example: for security reasons (بِسَبَبِ اعْتِباراتٍ أَمْنيّةٍ). Watch out: the phrase اِعْتِبارًا مِنْ means starting from, as of…
فَنِّيٌّtechnical; also artistic – when used as an adjective. Otherwise, it means technician.
كَمّيّةٌquantity; amount; bunch. For example: a large amount (كَمِّيّةٌ كَبِيرةٌ)
pl.: صادِراتٌ
exporting; export product. Usually only used in the plural when it denotes exports or export in general. For example: export volume (حَجْمُ الصادِراتِ). If you also talk about imports, it is best to use the word وارِداتٌ if you talk about items. If you focus on the process, you’d better use اِسْتِيرادٌ.
مَجْهُودٌeffort. For example: to make an effort (بَذَلَ مَجْهُودًا). It is the passive participle (اِسْمُ الْمَفْعُولِ) of the I-verb جَهَدَ – يَجْهَدُ which means to strive.
تَعْوِيضٌcompensation; reimbursement. It is the مَصْدَر of the II-verb عَوَّضَ – يُعَوِّضُ which means to compensate. For example: a once-in-a-lifetime chance (فُرْصَةٌ لا تُعَوِّضُ)
Vocabulary List – Media Arabic Booster 06/24 – © Gerald Drißner

NOTICE: If there are any errors or mistakes in this article, please let me know or use the comment section below. I am not a native English speaker, and inaccuracies can quickly creep in with more complicated texts. We are all here to learn.

DISCLAIMER: Just so you know, my focus is purely on the language, and my selection of texts does not express any political views. The Arab world is currently full of sad conflicts. If a text excerpt hits someone personally or makes them angry, please remember that as a journalist, I listen to all sides without judgment, and I do not want to spread any political views or engage in discussions on Arabic for Nerds. All I care about here is the wonderful language of Arabic, and that we can all use it to understand each other better.

  1. Source: ↩︎
  2. Source: MadaMasr – ↩︎

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